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Wolves
Wolf History, Conservation, Ecology and Behavior
[www.wolfology.com]

Abridged version available in RESOURCES
Article available in WOLF WARS
Abstract available in ABSTRACTS


Articles About Wolves - M
Mack, C.M. & J. Holyan. Idaho Wolf Recovery Program: Restoration and Management of Gray Wolves in Idaho, Progress Report, 2002. Nez Perce Tribe, Dept. of Wildlife Mgmt., 2003 (34pp).
Mack, C.M. et al. Idaho Wolf Recovery Program: Restoration and Management of Gray Wolves in Idaho, Progress Report, 1999-2001. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Wildlife Management, 2002 (34pp).
Mack, C.M. & K. Laudon. 1999. Idaho Wolf Recovery Program: The Restoration and Management of Gray Wolves in Central Idaho, Progress Report 1995-1998. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Wildlife Management, Lapwai, ID., 1999 (22 pp).
Mack, J.A. & F.J. Singer. Predicted Effects of Wolf Predation on Northern Range Elk, Mule Deer, and Moose Using Pop-II Models. In (Varley, J.D. & W.G. Brewster, eds.) Wolves for Yellowstone? A Report to the U.S. Congress, Vol. IV, Research and Analysis, 1992, 4.41-4.70.
MacNulty, D.R. ey al. Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos, Usurps Bison, Bison bison, Captured by Wolves, Canis lupus, in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 115, 2001, 495-498.
MacNulty, D.R. Hunting Success of Gray Wolves in Yellowstone National Park. Beyond 2000: Realities of Global Wolf Restoration, 2000.
MacNulty, D.R. Occurrence of Pursuit Deterrence Signals During Wolf Hunts of Elk in Yellowstone National Park: A Preliminary Assessment. Beyond 2000: Realities of Global Wolf Restoration, 2000.
Malcolm, J. The Diet of the Ethiopian Wolf from a Grassland Area of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology, 35/2, 1997, 162.
Mangun, W.R. et al. Valuing Red Wolf Recovery Efforts at Alligator River NWR: Measuring Citizen Support. In (Fascione, N. & M. Cecil, comps.) Wolves of America Conference Proceedings, November 1996, 165-171.
Marino, J. Threatened Ethiopian Wolves Persist in Small Isolated Afroalpine Enclaves. Oryx, 37/1, 2003, 62-71.76
Markham, D. Smokies Homecoming: Narrowly Saved from Extinction, Red Wolves are Breeding Again in a Famous Eastern Park. Defenders, 68/4, 1993, 9-15.
Marshall, J.P. & S. Boutin. Power Analysis of Wolf-Moose Functional Responses. Journal of Wildlife Management, 63/1, January 1999, 396 (7pp).
Matteson, M.Y. Denning Ecology of Wolves in Northwest Montana and Southern Canadian Rockies. Masters Thesis, Univ. of Montana, 1993.
Matteson, M.Y. Wolf Re-story-ation: The Importance of Myth and Values in Ecological Restoration Efforts. In (Fascione, N. & M. Cecil, comps.) Wolves of America Conference Proceedings, November 1996, 218-222.
Mattioli, L. et al. Wolf Food Habits and Wild Ungulate Availability in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, Italy. Acta Theriologica, 40/4, December 1995, 287-402.
McAllen, L. Scientists Recommend More Room for Wolves to Run. Albuquerque (NM) Tribune, 8 May 2001.
McBride, R.T. The Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi). US Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Report 8, 1980, 1-38.
McCabe, M. Gray Wolves Heading to California. San Francisco Chronicle, 5 February 2002, A1.
McCarley, H. & C.J. Carley. Recent Changes in the Distribution and Status of Wild Red Wolves Canis rufus. Endangered Species Report No. 4, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 1979 (38pp).
McCarley, H. The Taxonomic Status of wild Canis (Canidae) in the South-central United States. Southwestern Naturalist, 7, 1962, 227-235.
McCarley, H. Vocalizations of Red Wolves (Canis rufus). Journal of Mammalogy, 59, 1977, 27-35.
McClure, J.R. The Wolf at the Stockman's Door. The Country Gentleman, 79/46, November 1914, 1845-1846.
McDade, A. Cry of the Red Wolf. The Tennessee Conservationist, March/April 1993, 18-23.
McGhee, R. Co-Evolution: New Evidence Suggests That To Be Truly Human Is To Be Partly Wolf. Alternatives, 28/1, Winter 2002, 12-15.
McKie, R. & H. McDouall. Rescued Wolves Face Death by Helicopter Hunt. The Observer, 21 January 2001.
McLaren, B.E. & R.O. Peterson. Wolves, Moose, and Tree Rings on Isle Royale. Science, 266/5190, 2 December 1994, 1555.
McLeod, P.J. Developmental Changes in Associations Between Timber Wolf (Canis lupus) Postures. Behavioural Processes, 38/2, 1996, 105-118.
McLeod, P.J. & J.C. Fentress. Developmental Changes in the Sequential Behavior of Interacting Timber Wolf Pups. Behvaioural Processes, 39/2, 1997, 127-136.
McLeod, P.J. et al. The Relation Between Urinary Cortisol Levels and Social Behavior in Captive Timber Wolves. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74, 1996, 209-216.
McNamee, G. All They Need Is Wolves. Sierra, May-June 2003.
McNamee, T. The Return of Il Lupo. Natural History, December 1996.
McNamee, T. Trouble in Wolf Heaven. Audubon, 84/1, January 1982, 84-95.
McNay, M.E. A Case History of Wolf-Human Encounters in Alaska and Canada. Alaska Dept. of Fish & Game, Wildlife Technical Bulletin 13, 2002.
McNay, M.E. Wolf-Human Interactions in Alaska and Canada: A Review of the Case History. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30/3, 2002, 831-843.
McNay, M. et al. Reproductive Characteristics of an Exploited Wolf Population. World Wolf Congress 2003.
McNay, M.E. Wolf-Human Interactions in Alaska and Canada: A Review of the Case History. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30/3, Fall 2002, 831.
McWilliams, N. Return of the Red Wolf. Rotarian, 159/5, 1991, 46.
Mech, L.D. Age, Season, Distance, and Social Aspects of Wolf Dispersal from a Minnesota Pack. In (Chepko-Sade, B.D. & Z.T. Halpin, eds.) Mammalian Dispersal Patterns: The Effects of Social Structure on Population Genetics (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987), 55-74.
Mech, L.D. Alpha Status, Dominance, and Division of Labor in Wolf Packs. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77, August 1999, 1196-1203.
Mech, L.D. & N. Federoff. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Polymorphism and Systematics of Eastern North American Wolves. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, May 2002, 961-963.
Mech, L.D. et al. Assessing Factors that May Predispose Minnesota Farms to Wolf Depredations on Cattle. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28/3, Fall 2000, 623.
Mech, L.D. Buffer Zones of Territories of Gray Wolves as Regions of Intraspecific Strife. Journal of Mammalogy, 75/1, February 1994, 199.
Mech, L. D. & S. M. Goyal. Canine Parvovirus Effect on Wolf Population Change and Pup Survival. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 22, 1993,104-106.
Mech, L.D. The Challenge and Opportunity of Recovering Wolf Populations. Conservation Biology, 9, 1995, 270-278.
Mech, L.D. & S.B. Merrill. Daily Departure and Return Patterns of Wolves, Canis lupus, from a Den at 80 Degrees North Latitude. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 112/3, 1998, 515-517.
Mech, L.D. Daytime Activities of Wolves During Winter in Northeastern Minnesota. 73/3, August 1992, 570.
Mech, L.D. Details of a Confrontation Between Two Wild Wolves. Journal of Zoology, 1993, 1901-1903.
Mech, L.D. et al. Denali Park Wolf Studies: Implications for Yellowstone. In Transactions of the 56th Conference on North American Wildlife and Natural Resources, 1991, 86-90.
Mech, L.D. & M.E. Nelson. Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest in Northeastern Minnesota? Journal of Wildlife Management, 64/1, January 2000, 129.
Mech, L.D. et al. The Effect of Snow Conditions on the Vulnerability of White-Tailed Deer to Wolf Predation. In (Mech, L.D. & L.D. Frenzel, Jr., eds.) Ecological Studies of the Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. US For. Ser. Res. Paper NC-52, 1971, 51-59.
Mech, L.D. Ecological Studies of the Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-52, 1971 (62pp).
Mech, L.D. Estimated Costs of Maintaining a Recovered Wolf Population in Agricultural Regions of Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26/4, Winter 1998, 817 (6pp).
Mech, L.D. & E.M. Gese. Field Testing the Wildlink Capture Collars on Wolves. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 20/2, Summer 1992, 221.
Mech, L.D. The Howling: Dealing With the Wolf Boom. Earthwatch, 1994, 24-31.
Mech, L.D. The Eastern Timber Wolf. Minnesota Volunteer, 40/235, 1977, 28-39.
Mech, L.D. & S.M. Goyal. Effects of Canine Parvovirus on Gray Wolves in Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management, 59/3, July 1995, 565.
Mech, L.D. Evidence of Prey-Caused Mortality in Three Wolves. American Midland Naturalist, 123/1, January 1990, 207-208.
Mech, L.D. Longevity in Wild Wolves. Journal of Mammalogy, 69, 1988, 197-198.
Mech, L.D. Making the Most of Radio-Tracking: A Summary of Wolf Studies in Northeastern Minnesota. In (Amlaner, Jr., C.J. & D.W. MacDonald, eds.) A Handbook on Biotelemetry and Radiotracking (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), 85-95.
Mech, L.D. Managing Minnesota's Recovered Wolves. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 29/1, Spring 2001, 70.
Mech, L.D. et al. Minnesota Wolf Dispersal to Wisconsin and Michigan. American Midland Naturalist, 133/2, April 1995, 368.
Mech, L.D. et al. Movements, Behavior, and Ecology of Timber Wolves in Northeastern Minnesota. In (Mech, L.D. & L.D. Frenzel, Jr., eds.) Ecological Studies of the Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. US For. Ser. Res. Paper NC-52, 1971, 1-34.
Mech, L.D. A Plan for the Management of the Timber Wolf in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, June 1972.
Mech, L.D. Population Trend and Winter Deer Consumption in a Minnesota Wolf Pack. In (Phillips, R.L. & L. Jonkel, eds.) Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium, 1977.
Mech, L.D. & L.D. Frenzel. The Possible Occurrence of the Great Plains Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota. In (Mech, L.D. & L.D. Frenzel, eds.) Ecological Studies of the Timber Wolf in Northeastern Minnesota, U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-52, 1971, 60-62.
Mech, L.D. & J.M. Packard. Possible Use of a Wolf (Canis lupus) Den Over Several Centuries. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 104, 1990, 484-485.
Mech, L.D. & U.S. Seal. Premature Reproductive Activity in Wild Wolves. Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 1987, 871-873.
Mech, L.D. Productivity, Mortality and Population Trends of Wolves in Northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy, 58/4, 1977, 559-574.
Mech, L.D. A Recovery Plan for the Eastern Timber Wolf. Environmental Journal, January 1977, 17-21.
Mech, L.D. Regular and Homeward Travel Speeds of Arctic Wolves. Journal of Mammalogy, 75/3, August 1994, 741.
Mech, L.D. et al. Regurgitative Food Transfer Among Wild Wolves. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77, August 1999, 1192-1195.
Mech, L.D. et al. Relationships Between Winter Severity and Wolf Depredations on Domestic Animals in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16, 1988, 269-272.
Mech, L.D. Resistance of Young Wolf Pups to Inclement Weather. Journal of Mammalogy, 74/2, May 1993, 485.
Mech, L.D. Returning the Wolf to Yellowstone. In (Keiter, R.B. & M.S. Boyce, eds.) The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1991), 309.
Mech, L.D. & P. D. Karns. Role of the Wolf in a Deer Decline in the Superior National Forest. U.S. Dept. Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper NC-143, 1977 (23pp).
Mech, L.D. & R.A. Rausch. The Status of the Wolf in the United States, 1973. IUCN Publication Supplement 43, 1975, 83-88.
Mech, L.D. Stubborn Hunter in a Harsh Land. National Wildlife, Aug.-Sep. 1989, 20-24.
Mech, L.D. Summer Movements and Behavior of an Arctic Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Without Pups. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 110, 1995, 473-475.
Mech, L.D. A Ten-Year History of the Demography and Productivity of an Arctic Wolf Pack. Arctic, 48/4, December 1995, 329-332.
Mech, L. D. Updating Our Thinking on the Role of Human Activity in Wolf Recovery. Research Information Bulletin 57. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993.
Mech, L.D. et al. Use of Tooth Cementum for Age Determination of Gray Wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management, 49/2, April 1985, 313-316.
Mech, L.D. What Do We Know About Wolves and What More Do We Need to Learn? In (Carbyn, L.N. et al., eds.) Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World, Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1995, 537-545.
Mech, L.D. What Fate for Minnesota's Wolves? Audubon, 72/6, November 1970, 78-81.
Mech, L.D. Where the Wolves Are and How They Stand. Natural History, April 1971, 26-29.
Mech, L.D. Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? Audubon, 92/2, March 1990, 82-85.
Mech, L.D. Why Some Deer Are Safe from Wolves. Natural History, January 1979, 70-77.
Mech, L.D., et al. Winter Severity and Wolf Predation on a Formerly Wolf-Free Elk Herd. Journal of Wildlife Management, 65/4, October 2001, 998-1003.
Mech, L.D. et al. Wolf Distribution and Road Density in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16, 1988, 85-87.
Mech, L.D. et al. Wolf Nipple Measurements as Indices of Age and Breeding Status. American Midlands Naturalist, 129/2, April 1993, 266.
Mech, L. D. Wolf Numbers in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. United States Forest Service Research Report. NC-07, 1973 (10pp).
Mech, L.D. Wolf Pack Witness. Audubon, 98/6, 1996, 78-88.
Mech, L. D. Wolf Population in the Central Superior National Forest, 1967-1985. USDA Forest Service Research Paper. NC-270, 1986 (6pp).
Mech, L.D. Wolf Population Survival in an Area of High Road Density. American Midland Naturalist, 121/2, April 1989, 387-389.
Mech, L.D. Wolf Realities. Yellowstone Science, 3/3, Summer 1995, 6-11.
Mech, L.D. Wolf Restoration to the Adirondacks: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Participation in the Decision. In (Sharpe, V.A. et al., eds.) Wolves and Human Communities: Biology, Politics, and Ethics, 2001, 13-22.
Mech, L.D. Wolves, Coyotes and Dogs. In (Nelson, M.M., ed.) The White-Tailed Deer in Minnesota, Proc. Symp. Minn. Chap. Wildl. Soc., Sect. Game, Minn. Dep. Nat. Resour. (St. Paul), 1971, 19-22.
Mech, L.D. The Wolves of Isle Royale. National Park Service Fauna Series 7, U.S. GPO, 1966 (210pp).
Medjo, D.C. & L.D. Mech. Reproductive Activity in Nine- and Ten-Month-Old Wolves. Journal of Mammalogy, 57, 1976, 406-408.
Medwid, W.R. An Interpretative Center on the Wolf--The Minnesota Model. In (Fascione, N. & M. Cecil, comps.) Wolves of America Conference Proceedings, November 1996, 231-234.
Meintaefel, P.A. Wolf Myth Exploded. Christian Science Monitor, 7 July 1937, 5.
Meese, G.M. Intensified Efforts for Red Wolves Are Paying Off. Endangered Species Update, 6/10, 1988, 26-27.
Meier, T.J. et al. How Should We Count Wolves? World Wolf Congress 2003.
Meier, T. J. et al. Pack Structure and Genetic Relatedness Among Wolf Packs in a Naturally-Regulated Population. In (Carbyn, L.N. et al., eds.) Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1995, 209-302.
Meier, T. Wolf Depredation in the United States. International Wolf, 11/3, 2001, 4-5.
Mendelssohn, H. Wolves in Israel. In (Harrington, F.H. & P.C. Paquet, eds.) Wolves of the World, 1982, 173-194.
Mengel, R.M. A Study of Dog/Coyote Hybrids and Implications Concerning Hybridization in Canis. Journal of Mammalogy, 52/2, 1971, 316-336.
Meriggi, A. et al. The Feeding Habits of Wolves in Relation to Large Prey Availability in Northern Italy. Ecography, 19, 1996, 287-295.
Meriggi, A. & S. Lovari. A Review of Wolf Predation in Southern Europe: Does the Wolf Prefer Wild Prey to Livestock? Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 1996, 1561-1571.
Merriam, C.H. Wolf Attack on Humans Denied. Outdoor Life, 51/6, June 1923, 493.
Merrill, S.B. & L.D. Mech, Details of Extensive Movements by Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus). The American Midland Naturalist, 144/2, October 2000, 428.
Merrill, S.B. & C.R.Erickson. A GPS-Based Method to Examine Wolf Response to Loud Noise. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31/3, Fall 2003, 769-773.
Merrill, S.B. Road Densities and Wolf, Canis lupus, Habitat Suitability: An Exception. Canadian Field Naturalist 114, 2000, 312-314.
Merrill, S.B. et al. Testing Releasable GPS Radiocollars on Wolves and White-tailed Deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26/4, Winter 1998, 830 (6pp).
Mertig, A.G. et al. Here Comes the Wolf: Public Attitudes Toward Wolf Recovery in Michigan. World Wolf Congress 2003.
Messier, F. & D. Joly. Comment: Regulation of Moose Populations by Wolf Predation. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78, March 2000, 506-520.
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Messier, F. Physical Condition and Blood Physiology of Wolves in Relation to Moose Density. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 1987, 91-95.
Messier, F. Social Organization, Spatial Distribution, and Population Density of Wolves in Relation to Moose Density. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63, 1985, 1068-1077.
Messier, F. Solitary Living and Extraterritorial Movements of Wolves in Relation to Social Status and Prey Abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63, 1985, 239-245.
Messier, F. Ungulate Population Models with Predation: a Case Study With the North American Moose. Ecology 75, 1994, 478-488.
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