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Wolves
Wolf History, Conservation, Ecology and Behavior
[www.wolfology.com]

Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 10.1.04 - 12.31.04
Number of collared wolves
67
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
11
Changes in wild wolf population:
1. Births
na
2. Deaths
#11249, a female born in 2003 that recently paired with a male wolf was found dead on private property during a telemetry flight. A necropsy report showed emaciation as a probable cause of death, and may have been related to a stick found lodged in the wolf's palate.
#10992, a five-year-old breeding male in Hyde County is presumed dead after the radio collar it was wearing was located in a canal during a telemetry flight. The collar had been cut off the wolf and what appeared to be a bullet hole through part of the transmitter. Gunshot is the probable cause of death.
#11112M, a breeding male near Mattamuskeet Lake, was found dead during a telemetry flight. The carcass was found floating in an impoundment on private property, with no apparent cause of death. The results are pending a necropsy.
#11181, a two-year old female, was located in mortality mode during a telemetry flight within her natal home range in Tyrrell County. The wolf was found shot near a farm road. This wolf would likely have dispersed during this time of year and established a new pack.
#11295, a breeding male in Beaufort County, was found dead during a telemetry flight. It had been dead for a number of days with no apparent cause of death. Further results are pending a necropsy. This wolf left its natal home range west of Columbia as a pup when an unrelated male moved into the area and displaced all the remaining males in the pack. He moved to an area near Ransomville and began consorting with a female wolf, establishing a new pack.
#11237, a two-year old breeding male, was located in mortality mode west of Mattamuskeet Lake. The wolf had been shot on private property near a paved road. The wolf had recently moved into the area, displacing an older resident breeding male.
#11269, a yearling male, was located west of Pocosin Lakes NWR in mortality mode. Cause of death is pending a necropsy.
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
15 pups were captured during this quarter. Only two of these had not been marked in the den last Spring as the pups at that den could not be safely reached. Included in these captures are two females from Cape Romain NWR at Bulls Island in South Carolina. These were fostered to two different wild litters and were found to be in excellent condition.
4. Releases from captivity
0
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
We lost contact with 11293, a yearling female from a pack just south of Alligator River NWR. The collar quit transmitting the same day the collar from 10992 was found in a canal (see above). 10992M sired 11293 and both often traveled together according to radio telemetry.
11108 disappeared during the first week of bear-hunting season in Hyde County. This male was an older breeder from a pack south of Mattamuskeet Lake that was re-collared just last year.
Number of captive wolves:
1. Total number of captive wolves
153 (75 males, 78 females)
During this period, 23 pups (8 males, 14 females, 1 unknown sex) were born from eight litters (two litters inolved single pups that were stillborn). Currently 13 (5 male, 8 female) pups are still alive.
2. Number of wolves on islands
5 (one pair on St. Vincent, and adult male and 2 pups on Bulls Island)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
0
b. Number of hybrids
0
c. History
4 wild wolves were temporarily held to treat for mange. Three comprised a pack on Alligator River NWR, and one was a breeding female south of Pocosin Lakes NWR.
d. Number of captive wolves
6, including two pups brought from a zoo in New York after a sibling escaped the zoo and died before it could be recaptured.
e. Number slated for breeding
0
Number of wolf packs & pairs
18 known or suspected: 6 in Zone 1, 9 in Zone 2, 3 in Zone 3.
Dsipersal/displacement/wide ranging movements (wolf)
11178, a yearling male from the Western pack, left his natal home range at the end of October and moved south near New Lake, displacing an older male breeder. The older male, 11169, has remained near the area on the outskirts of his former territory.
Both breeders from the Ventures pack were displaced when the two adults from a nearby pack moved into their territory. The former male from Ventures, 11168, moved east and appears to have taken the place of the former breeding male of the Airport pack, 10992, who's presumed dead after his collar wa found in a canal (see above). The female from Ventures, 11051, moved to Mattamuskeet NWR and at this time appears to be alone.
11206, a yearling male from the Timberlake pack, dispersed from his natal home range to an area 30 miles to the west.
Dispersal/displacement/wide ranging movements (non-wolf)
None
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is still undergoing revision and review. We hope to finalize it by January 2005.
Additional management decisions
NA
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
10/9  Scuppernong River Festival in Columbia, NC (~500)
10/9  Red Wolf Bike Ride/Howl (~10)
10/22-24  North Carolina Wildlife Art Show, New Bern, NC (~1,000)
10/23  Red Wolf Howling (115)
11/4  Wings Over Water howling (8)
11/6  Wings Over Water howling (8)
11/8  Cheshire High School in CT (20)
12/11  Red Wolf Howling (75)
2. Media coverage for the quarter

Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 4.1.04-6.30.04
Number of collared wolves
63
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
14 (This includes coyotes)
Changes in wild wolf population:
1. Births
55 pups were counted in 11 litters
2. Deaths
5 total
1) A 2 yr old female born at the NC Zoo and fostered into the Newlands pack's litter was found dead in mid April. Her collar was picked up in mortality mode during ground telemetry work, and she was found to be a few days from whelping. It appears she may have died from complications associated with pregnancy. Though she was considered a non-breeder in the pack, a new male had moved in earlier during the breeding season and bred her.
2) A female born in 2002 to the Milltail pack on ARNWR was hit by a vehicle on a farm road in mid April. She had been captured on ARNWR earlier in the year and treated for sarcoptic mange. The rest of her pack had died, been displaced by a pair of wolves or were also being treated for mange. She was released the day prior to her death in the vicinity of a lone male wolf in hopes of establishing a resident pair.
3. A female born in 2002 died in late April as a result of intraspecific aggression. This female was originally from the Outfall pack, and one of her front legs had to be amputated following injury from a local's trap set legally for other species. She had been transient for over a year traveling through portions of the recovery area. She was found dead in the territory of the Intracoastal Waterway pack during a telemetry flight. The breeding female of this pack was located less than half a mile from her location, and is suspected of killing her.
4. A 10-yr old male died in early June. For a number of years this was the breeding male of the Newlands pack. Though a large male, he was displaced by a younger male earlier this year during the breeding season. He had severe arthritis and mange, which may have contributed to his being displaced, and eventually his death.
5. A 2-yr old female from the former Milltail pack that had been treated [for] mange earlier in the year was hit by a vehicle on Highway 64 in ARNWR in mid June. She had been released over a month prior into an area on the refuge with a male from another pack, but wandered east into her former territory and may have been pushed out by the resident female, resulting in her travels along the highway and subsequent death.
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
0
4. Releases from captivity
2 pups from Bulls Island fostered to two separate wild dens
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
1 (lost contact with a breeding male in Zone 3 who's collar was suspected of quitting due to battery life; the intact social structure of the pack has not changed, suggesting this male is still present; efforts to re-collar this male may take place later in the year)
Number of captive wolves:
1. Total number of captive wolves
154 (75 males, 79 females)
During this period ,23 pups (8 males, 14 female, 1 unknown sex) were born from eight litters (two litters involved single pups that were stillborn). Currently 14 (5 male, 9 female) pups are still alive.
2. Number of wolves on islands
2 (one pair on St. Vincent, none on Bulls Island)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
2 (a male & female treated for mange that will be released together)
b. Number of hybrids
0
c. History
Of the 2 wild wolves slated for release, one was a breeding male from the Milltail pack on ARNWR, the other a female born on Bulls Island and released south of refuge in late 2003. Both were captured in order to treat for sarcoptic mange, and will be released together in one of their former territories in July in hopes of establishing a new pack.
d. Number of captive wolves
4
e. Number slated for breeding
0
Number of wolf packs & pairs
21 known or suspected: 7 in Zone 1; 9 in Zone 2; 5 in Zone 3
Dsipersal/displacement/wide ranging movements (wolf)
2 instances documented:
1) A 2-yr old male from the Outfall pack that had moved into the northern portion of ARNWR earlier this year was displaced by the resident breeding male in early June. He has since moved south of the refuge but still appears transient.
2) A breeding male from the Frying Pan pack was displaced by a 2-yr old male that dispersed from the Western pack to the west.
Dispersal/displacement/wide ranging movements (non-wolf)
None
Aerial or ground visuals
None noteworthy
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is still undergoing revision and review. We hope to finalize it by October 2004.
Additional management decisions
NA
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
4/1 Smithfield AIG School, Assembly Presentation (50); 4/2 McGee's Crossroads Elementary, 12 Presentations (800); 4/4 Walk For Wildlife, Raleigh, Booth (500 total attendance); 4/17 Earth Day at NC Aquarium, Manteo, Booth (200 total); 4/22 Earth Day Howling, ARNWR (48); 4/25 Teacher Workshop, Pocosin Lakes NWR (17); 4/26 Columbia Middle School, Lecture (17); 5/21 Refuge Intern Training, ARNWR, Power Point (20); 5/30 Howling, ARNWR (95)
2. Media coverage for the quarter
USA Today May 26, 2004, 8D. "N.C. Red Wolves have a productive spring"
Outer Banks Sentinel May 26, 2004 "Two captive-born red wolf pups are adopted by wild packs"
The Virginian-Pilot May 26, 2004 "Red wolves not so big or bad" by Catherine Kozak
The Coastland Times May 30, 2004 "Captive-born red wolf pups adopted by packs: 2002 foster pup produces wild litter"
The Charlotte Observer May 30, 2004 "Record Spring Boosts N.C. Red Wolf Numbers" by Jack Horan
Wildlife In North Carolina June 2004 pp 9-12 "Critical Carnivores" by John Manuel
The News & Observer June 10, 2004 "Red wolves find life fine in Carolina" by Jerry Allegood
The Coast June 19-27, 2004 "Calling All Red Wolves"

Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 1.1.04-3.31.04
Number of collared wolves
68
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
14 (this includes coyotes)
Changes in wolf population:
1. Births
NA
2. Deaths
8: Three by vehicle, four to natural causes, including mange, intraspecific aggression, and age-related; one to unknown causes
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
4
4. Releases from captivity
0
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
0 (2 wolves captured/recollared that were previously fate-unknown)
Number of captive wolves:
1. Total number of captive wolves
145 (71 males; 74 females)
2. Number of wolves on islands
2 (one pair on St. Vincent, none on Bulls Island)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
9 (All wild wolves)
b. Number of hybrids
3
c. History
Of the 9 slated for release, 4 were held to treat for mange. 5 others were captured and held to pair with wolves for release in hopes of establishing new packs
d. Number of captive wolves
4
e. Number slated for breeding
0
Number of wolf packs & pairs
19 known or suspected: 7 in Zone 1; 8 in Zone 2; 4 in Zone 3. Note: Releases from captivity may result in 4 new packs, 1 in Zone 1, 2 in Zone 2, 1 in Zone 3
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (wolf)
4 instances documented:
1) a yearling male dispersed from natal home range (nhr) and displaced a breeding male in Zone 1
 2) male pup displaced by a new breeding male; pup was captured and paired with a wild female; both pending release from captivity
3) yearling male dispersed from its nhr and paired with a female in Zone 2
4) female pup dispersed from nhr and was hit by a vehicle
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (non-wolf)
A known sterile hybrid that had moved from Zone 2 to Zone 3 and began consorting with a female wolf last quarter was displaced by a wolf and has moved back to Zone 2
Aerial or ground visuals
None noteworthy
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is till undergoing revision and review. We hope to finalize it by October 2004
Additional management decisions
NA
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
1/28 College of the Albemarle Drawing Class, lecture (7); 1/30-2/1 Eastern NC Wildlife Show, Washington, NC (aprx. 4,000 total); 2/3 College of the Albemarle Biology Class, Pwr. Pt. (30); 2/13-15 Southeastern Wildlife Exposition, Charleston, SC (aprx. 30,000 total); 2/19 Girl Scouts "Thinking Day", Winston-Salem, presentation (40); 2/20 PoeElementary School, Raleigh, 3 presentations (400); 3/2 Greenville Bird Club, Pwr. Pt. (30); 3/3 Red Mill Elementary 2nd Grade, VA Beach, presentation (45); 3/5 Manteo Elementary Science Fair, 6 presentations (aprx. 500); 3/5-7 Dixie Deer Classic, Raleigh, NC (1prx. 15,000 total); 3/14 Tarboro High school AP Biology, ARNWR, presentation (10); 3/18 Rocksboro Elementary 8th grade, PINWR, 3 presentations (90)
2. Media coverage for the quarter
Coastwatch Winter 2004, "Alligator River Refuge Comes Alive at Night" by Ann Green
International Wolf Spring 2004, "From Fourteen: A Beginning" by David R. Rabon, "In The Wake of Hurricane Isabel" by Neil Hutt
Coastland Times March 2, 2004 "COA Art Students Get Close to Red Wolf" by Meredith Vaccaro