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Wolves
Wolf History, Conservation, Ecology and Behavior
[www.wolfology.com]
Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 10.1.03-12.31.03
Number of collared wolves
70
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
13 (this includes coyotes)
Changes in wild wolf population:
1. Births
41 confirmed to date for '03
2. Deaths
2: one by gunshot, one suspected foul play (both from same pack in Zone 3)
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
14
4. Releases from captivity
0
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
4
Number of captive wolves:
1. Total number of captive wolves
153 (76 males, 77 females)
2. Number of wolves on islands
7 (two on St. Vincent and five on Bulls Island)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
0
b. Number of hybrids
0
c. History
N/A
d. Number of captive wolves
3
e. Number slated for breeding
1 (will be shipped to zoo in IL)
Number of wolf packs & pairs
19 known or suspected: 8 in Zone 1; 6 in Zone 2; 5 in Zone 3
Dsipersal/displacement/wide ranging movements (wolf)
At least 8 yearlings have dispersed; all males except for one. The female is the one who had to have a front leg amputated last quarter. She was moving through Zone 2 and was recently recaptured and found in good health. She may be consorting with a recently displaced male. Of the males, one has displaced a breeding male and 3 others may be in a position to do the same. This includes 2 males that were fostered into existing litters in 2002, one from the NC Zoo and one from ARNWR.
Dispersal/displacement/wide ranging movements (non-wolf)
One sterile hybrid moved from Zone 2 to Zone 3 and was possibly consorting with a female wolf. This male may have been displaced by another resident sterile hybrid.
Aerial or ground visuals
None
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is still undergoing revision and review,.
Additional management decisions
N/A
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
10/1 College of the Albemarles, Pwr. Pt. (17); 10/10-12 North Carolina Wildlife Art Show, Booth (1,000's); 10/11 Scuppernong Festival, Booth (?); 10/15 Howling (28 registered); 10/16 Wings Over Water Howling (15); 10/17 Wings Over Water Howling (15); 10/31 Howl-O-Ween (41 reg.); 11/1 Howl-O-Ween (33 reg.); 11/10 Cheshire High School, CT, Conference Call (23); 12/11 Kitty Hawk Elementary, Presentation (aprox. 30); 12/13 Howling (14 reg.)
Total number of attendants registered for 2003 Howlings: 1,181 (figure includes Howlings cancelled due to weather and hurricane damage)
2. Media coverage for the quarter
10/15 Interviews filmed for Wolf Awareness Week coverage at NC Zoo for Fox station in Asheboro
10/31 Spy Hop Productions gathered wild footage and filmed "Howl-O-Ween" for a short segment of National Geographic "On Assignment." Airdate unknown
12/10 UNCTV's "North Carolina Now" featured an update about the 2002 fostering event--footage of fostered wolf from NC Zoo being released.

Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 7.1.03 - 9.30.03
Number of collared wolves
63
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
16 (this includes coyotes)
Changes in wolf population:
1. Births
39 confirmed to date for '03
2. Deaths
1 (due to vehicle)
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
0
4. Releases from captivity
0
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
0
Number of captive wolves:
1. Zoo & Captive Facilities
159
2. Islands
10 (two on St. Vincent and eight on Bull's Island)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
0
b. Number of hybrids
0
c. History
N/A
d. Number of captive wolves
4
e. Number slated for breeding
2
Number of wolf packs & pairs
20 known or suspected: 8 in Zone 1; 7 in Zone 2; 5 in Zone 3
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (wolf)
As to be expected this time of year, the pack structures have remained stable.
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (non-wolf)
1 sterilized and collared coyote that had moved into Zone 1 has been showing wide-ranging movements through wolf territories, apparently unable to establish a home range. By the end of this quarter it appeared to be moving into Zone 2.
Aerial or ground visuals
In July, a pup from a pack in Zone 1 was observed by a telemetry intern. This litter was observed in the den, but because the pups were too young they were never transpondered by the field crew. The adult female moved the litter and the new den [was] never located. This sighting confirms survival of at least one pup from that litter.
Another pup sighting occurred from a landowner during July in Zone 2, involving 2 pups from a pack we had only suspected a litter in. The adult female restricted movement some during whelping season but a den was never found. We hope to confirm this sighting in the next few months.
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is still undergoing revision and review.
Additional management decisions
N/A
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
8-13-03 Howling (92 registered); 8-20-03 Howling (60 reg.); 8-27-03 Howling (71 reg.); 9-4-03 Edenton Rotary Club, Pwr. Pt. Presentation (30); 9-10-03 Howling (50 reg.); 10-1-03 College of the Albemarle Pwr. Pt. Presentation (17)
2. Articles or other media for the quarter
N/A
3. Research projects/papers/findings
N/A
4. Photos/film or other activities
National Geographic Explorer program aired August 3rd on MSNBC. A film crew from Tokyo TV filmed the Red Wolf Recovery program during the week of August 11-16. Edited material is to be included in a program about international endangered species recovery, to be aired in Japan.
Effects of Hurricane Isabel on the Red Wolf Recovery Program
On September 18th, Hurricane Isabel made landfall in northeastern North Carolina. The eye of the 500-mile wide storm directly hit the experimental red wolf restoration area, leaving her mark upon the landscape as well as the red wolf population. The category two storm ravaged the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR), inflicting an estimated $5.5 million in damage. In the fury of her 100 mph winds, Isabel managed to decimate the captive red wolf facility known as Sandy Ridge, located in ARNWR. Sandy Ridge, the second largest captive red wolf breeding facility in the nation, was nearly flattened by the high winds. Only one of the 14 pens in the facility escaped damage. Out of the 13 remaining pens, 7 are repairable. The recovery program's most photographed and filmed wolf, 520M (also known as "Zeus" and "Hollywood") was killed when a tree fell onto him as he escaped his shelter. During the storm, two captive-born red wolves escaped to the wild. One wolf was recovered via telemetry and the second was killed by an automobile before he could be recaptured. The field crew continues to assess whether any damage was done to the wild population of red wolves.

Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 4.1.03 - 6.30.03
Number of collared wolves
64
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
15 (this includes coyotes)
Changes in wolf population:
1. Births
39 confirmed to date for '03
2. Deaths
5
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
0
4. Releases from captivity
0
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
2 (lost contact with breeding females, one in Zone 1, one in Zone 2, but in each case the radio collar had been transmitting for nearly 4 years and probably quit due to battery life)
Number of captive wolves:
1. Zoo & Captive Facilities
159
2. Islands
3 (one pair on St. Vincent and one male on Cape Romain)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
0
b. Number of hybrids
1
c. History
Hybrid: a male, sterilized and held pending set-up of satellite collar
d. Number of captive wolves
7
e. Number slated for breeding
4
Number of wolf packs & pairs
20 known or suspected: 8 in Zone 1, 7 in Zone 2, 5 in Zone 3
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (wolf)
We may be seeing two groups broken up by neighboring packs. One pack in Zone 1 where the breeding female has died from intraspecific aggression (killed by another wolf), the remaining adult males have shown movement outside their home range, and one pair in Zone 2 where the breeding female is over 12 years old.
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (non-wolf)
--
Aerial or ground visuals
During a telemetry flight, two lab-sized dogs were observed foraging very close to a known wolf den on PLNWR*, moving quickly from one bush to another as if looking for something. The alpha male was then seen running into the area, finding both dogs and nipping at them from behind. This continued for over 15 minutes, with the dogs often turning to face the wolf, which would holds it ground with hackles raised. Eventually the dogs were pushed out of the area and the wolf returned to the den site.
During early morning field work, one of the program biologists was working off the road when he heard some noise coming from a nearby canal. He watched as a fawn ran through the brush less than 30 yards away, chased by both alpha adult wolves from another pack on PLNWR. The fawn was noticeably quicker and both wolves gave up the chase a few seconds later, walking off a short distance and laying down for much of the day.
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is still undergoing revision and review.
Additional management decisions
A hybrid animal has been fitted with an experimental satellite GPS collar. In addition to the GPS collar, the hybrid also carries an abdominal transmitter for backup purposes.
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
4-22-03 Earth Day (60); 5-28-03 Middle School Talk (15); 6-17-03 Dare County 4H Talk (30); 6-18-03 Howling (88 registered, 55 show); 6-20-03 Modeling Faculty, PLNWR: PP Pres. (15); 6-25-03 Howling (119 registered, 90 show); 7-9-03 Howling (51 registered, 41 show); 7-16-03 Howling (108 registered, 75 show).
2. Articles or other media for the quarter
6-6-03 Fayetteville Observer "Cartoon Creature Creates A Very Real Home in NC" by Nomee Landis (article mostly about coyotes)
7-6-03 Charlotte Observer "Wolves on the Westward Prowl" by Jack Horan
July/August 2003 National Geographic Kids Magazine - short "blurb" about red wolves
July 2003 Rip Current "Restoring the Red Wolf Song to North Carolina" by Sarah Krueger
3. Research projects/papers/findings
PhD candidate Jennifer Adams of the University of Idaho is working to complete the following objectives during her three-year study:
1. modify existing non-invasive genetic tests to use nuclear DNA instead of mitochondrial DNA
2. improve statistical genetic tests by including data from the 14 founding red wolves
3. combine data from non-invasive genetic tests with GIS data to detect home range and habitat usage
4. Photos/film or other activities
National Geographic Explorer program airdate scheduled August 3rd, 7 p.m. on MSBNC
* PLNWR = Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge

Red Wolf Recovery: USFWS Quarterly Report, 1.1.03 - 3.31.03
Number of collared wolves
68
Number of collared hybrids/sterile hybrids
13 (this includes coyotes)
Changes in wolf population:
1. Births
n/a
2. Deaths
4
3. First-time captures--adults/pups
7 (all pups)
4. Releases from captivity
1 release of a female from Bull's Island as an insertion in Zone 1
5. Management removals (problem animals)
0
6. Fate unknown/disappearance
1 (lost contact with a breeding male in Zone 3, but collar was already 4 years old so we suspect he is still in place)
Number of captive wolves:
1. Zoo & Captive Facilities
151
2. Islands
4 (one pair each on St. Vincent and Cape Romain)
3. Sandy Ridge:
a. Number slated for release
2
b. Number of hybrids
1
c. History
Wolves: a resident male unintentionally captured paired with a dispersing female and pending release on private land
Hybrid: a male sterilized and held pending decision by landowners on release date
d. Number of captive wolves
7
e. Number slated for breeding
4
Number of wolf packs & pairs
20 known or suspected: 8 in Zone 1, 7 in Zone 2, 5 in Zone 3
Pairs formed by Insertions: A yearling male dispersed outside the reintroduction area, was captured and paired with a wild female in Zone 2 that had been captured; both released 3/26/03
Naturally formed pairs: A female from Bull's Island used for an insertion moved away from release site and paired with a male wolf following the removal of the female hybrid with whom he was previously paired
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (wolf)
Yearling male from Zone 2 dispersed well outside reintroduction area (~70 miles from natal home range) This male was captured and used as an insertion (see above)
Dispersal/displacement/wide-ranging movements (non-wolf)
--
Aerial or ground visuals
nothing notable
Quarterly status statement on Adaptive Mgmt. Plan
The red wolf adaptive management plan is currently undergoing revision and review. We hope to finalize the plan by Spring of 2003.
Position Statement: During their March 2003 meeting, the independent panel of scientists known as the Red Wolf Recovery Implementation Team acknowledged significant progress in building the wild red wolf population and managing coyotes and hybrids. Active management has resulted in Zones 1 and 2 nearly full of red wolf breeding pairs.
Additional management decisions
A female pup broke her front leg in a legal trap set on private land by a local trapper. Because of the amount of damage done to the leg the only option we had to keep her in the wild was to amputate the leg. We have successfully released a wolf after amputating a rear leg but had never tried the front, although it has worked well in captivity. The leg was amputated and the wolf released in her natal home range 3/12/03. We have since tracked her via aerial telemetry and at times locate her up to 10 miles away from a previous location, and at times with other siblings and parents.
Outreach activities:
1. Events/presentations including # of attendees
1-14-03 Goose Creek State Park: Power Point Presentation (40); 2-1-03 Museum of Nat. Science at PLNWR*: Talk (20); 2-4-03 Belhaven Rotary Club: Talk (22); 2-14-03 thru 2-16-03 Charleston Wildlife Expo: Booth (600-800); 2-24-03 Encore Center NC State: PP Pres.(45); 2-28-03 thru 3.2.03 Dixie Deer Classic Raleigh: Booth (300-400); 3-7-03 Cheshire H.S.: Conference Call (17); 3-11-02 Sierra Club, Greensboro: Talk (35); 3-14-03 Manteo E.S.: Science Fair (450); 3-15-03 NC Zoo: PP Pres. (25); 3-20-03 Chattanooga Nature Center: PP Pres. (40); 4-2-03 Kiwanis Club, Chocowinity: Talk (35); 4-2-03 Terra Ceia Christian School: Talk  (30)
2. Articles or other media for the quarter
1-13-03 Coastland Times -- Fostering Success Article
1-18-03 Washington Daily -- Full 2 page article on red wolves
1-27-03 Nat. Geo. Web page -- article on red wolves: update on program and ad for red wolf film airdate
1-27-03 WUNC Chapel Hill Radio -- Interview on air with Chris Lucash on pup fostering
2-1-03 Wolf Timbers Newsletter article on red wolves based on interview with S.B.
2-1-03 Wolf Tracks UK -- web page article on history of red wolves
2-2-03 Charleston Post & Courier -- Refuge Welcomes Wolves -- Humans play matchmaker for endangered red wolves
2-7-03 Charleston Post & Courier -- Valentines Day editorial -- You Can't Hurry Love -- Red Wolf Matchmaking
2-13-03 Coastland Times: AP wire article Refuge Welcomes Red Wolves
3-13-03 Blue Ridge Mtns mag. article on red wolves interview with S.B.
3. Research projects/papers/findings
Brian Eckert -- created an interactive map of red wolf history. Will give copies and contact info to Aubrey to continue working with Brian.
4. Photos/film or other activities
Animal Planet film: "Animal SOS", which was filmed in 2002 is in the editing process and will be delivered to ARNWR for review by Red Wolf Field Team in April. No news on airdate.
National Geographic Explorer program postponed.